100.5 to 102.5 degrees


60 to 160 beats per minute

Respiratory Rate

10 to 30 breaths per minute

Gum Color is a key indicator of health.

Moist pink gums are normal.

Pale gums indicate compromised circulation, which may mean shock.

Deep red gums indicate possible toxicity in their system.

Purple to blue gums indicate low oxygen levels or serious internal toxins.

Yellow gums may indicate liver problems.

CRT (Capillary Refill Time)

If you press on the gum tissue (the mucous membranes should be pink and moist). It should take less than 2 seconds for the color to return.



  • Mushrooms
  • Chocolate
  • Garlic
  • Onions
  • Grapes
  • Raisins
  • Household Plants Household Cleaners
  • Pool Chemicals
  • Rodenticides
  • Antifreeze
  • Fertilizers
  • Indoor and Outdoor Plants
  • Human Medications
  • Bones
  • Coins
  • Xylitol Products (sugar-free gums and candies)
  • Excessive Amounts of Food and Garbage



Poisons And Toxins Can Be Lethal

Poisons are often flavored and appeal to dogs. It is important to treat them like children and remove all potential threats. If you think they have consumed a toxin, immediately contact your vet and/or the Pet Poison Helpline (800-213-6680). They provide a nationwide (24 hour) call service for pet owners. They charge a $35.00 fee for consultation (so have your credit card ready). Toxicities can be lethal! Their affects can be immediate or damage may be accumulated overtime. Ingestion of poisonous substances can cause severe health issues such as: internal bleeding and irreversible organ damage. The sooner a pet poisoning is diagnosed, the easier, less expensive, and safer it is to be treated.